The degree of pilling of woven fabrics was determined by the Martindale method
January 11 , 2022

Pilling is the formation of tangled bundles or balls of fibers that are anchored to the surface of a fabric by one or more fibers. The resistance to the formation of pills on the surface of a textile fabric is known as pilling resistance.

Pills of yarns or fabrics are due to fiber mobility in the yarn. Yarn size stability is very important, because if our yarn size is stable, the fiber mobility in the yarn is small, so the surface of the fabric will take less pills.

The pilling is divided into four stages:

• Fuzz formation

• Entanglement

• Growth

• Wear-off

Pills typically occur on the parts of clothing that receive the most abrasion in day-to-day wear, such as the collar, cuffs, and around the thighs and rear on trousers.

Experiment's Objectives:

• Study the test method for determining the pilling in the woven fabric.

• Determine the pilling in the given sample of woven fabric.


• The pilling test was performed before on the cotton fabric sample in order to assess the resistance to the formation of pills.

• Test in Martindale wear using ASTM D-4970 US standards.

The Martindale Abrasion Tester is intended to provide controlled frictional movement between the fabric surface under low pressure in the direction of changing direction.

• Four circular samples of 120 mm for the abradent and 140 mm for the abrader was cut from each swatch.

• • Then load these samples into the Martindale Pilling Tester.

• The test was performed using variant pressure for 1000 rubs according to the standard.

• The degree of pilling was visually assessed using pilling photograph 1-5, 1 means more pilling and 5 means no pilling.


When pilling behavior was taken into account, it was observed that fabric woven from the compact yarn has a higher pill than the fabric weaven from the ring yarn.

Aveno related products:

AG04 Fabric Tester Martindale Abrasion Tester

AG04 Fabric Tester Martindale Abrasion Tester

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